- Use Simple Verbal and Nonverbal Acknowledgment (Marzano)
- Verbal: The easiest way to give students positive reinforcement for adherence to the classroom rules and procedures is to use verbal forms of recognition. This might take the form of saying to the class as a whole or to specific students that they did a nice job carrying out a procedure. (Marzano)
- Example: When I was doing Kahoot review game, when all the students got one question right, I would say “good job” to all of them; When I asked a question in class and one student volunteered to answer, I would say “thank you” at the end no matter if the response is correct or not. It seems the verbal and nonverbal acknowledgment used by me is confined in the area of academic content, so I should probably try to do more of it for adherence to rules and procedures(such as bathroom break procedures).
- Nonverbal: Nonverbal acknowledgments are also quite effective. These take the form of smiles, nods, winks, thumbs-up signs, A-OK signs, and the like. For example, if a particular student has done a good job of raising his hand before asking a question, the teacher might simply smile and nod at the student. This keeps the interaction more private than verbal acknowledgments. For some students, private types of interactions might be more appropriate if they are embarrassed by public acknowledgment. (Marzano)
- Example: I would give my students thumbs-up signs if they follow rules and procedures.
- Use Tangible Recognition (Marzano)
Tangible recognition seems more effective for my students, especially when the tangible recognition is in the form of extra points in their grades and can consequently improve their GPA.
- Example: I would tell my students they can earn extra points for winning a review game or do some extra work in my class. I think I should also use tangible recognition for rewarding adherence to classroom rules and procedures.
- Involve other parties of the school
Other parties of school in my case would be DSA(department of student affairs) and homerooms. In my school, DSA is the main department dealing with students behaviors, so involving DSA in acknowledgment and recognition would be a good move.
- Example: I think I could recommend DSA to give students some kind of reward and certificate for their adherence to the classroom rules and procedures, or the DSA can praise the students in their weekly gathering.
- Involve the home in recognition(Marzano)
Involving the home in recognition can be done in many ways, such as making phone calls, writing E-mails, and writing home notes.
- Examples: I have written multiples emails to parents about the students’ behaviors, but to be honest, most of them were expressing concerns and worries about their kids at school. So I should probably use this more to do positive reinforcement.
- Verbal reminders
A verbal reminder can be done in front of the whole classroom as a general reminder, and it can be done individually. And the individual reminder can be further specified as a firstly private individual reminder and then a public personal reminder, which means call out the student name in front of the whole class and remind him/her to stop.
- Example: When students are off task and talking out loud some unrelated, irrelevant topics, I usually just call their names and remind them to focus. I think I should adopt the multiple different level steps described above.
- Tangible consequences
Tangible consequences would include detention, deduction of points, classroom warning letters and time-out. I think this is the most important part of students management, for the majority of students are concerned about their score and GPA, if they know their behavior can and will affect their scores, they will behave better in the classroom.
- Example: For students sleeping in the classroom or not participating in class activities, their class work points will be deducted, and detention will be given.
- Group contingency
Group contingency works best for classes with multiple hyperactive students, when it is too energy consuming and time wasting to address the problems for each student, it is good to use common interest and peer pressure.
- Example: For my school, because most students are from China, kids naturally tends to communicate in their mother tongue(which is Chinese), it can be very difficult to address the problem one by one, so one English teacher used group contingency for the situation, when one student speaks in Chinese, the whole group or even the all class got affected.
- Involve other parties of the school
It is important for the school to cooperate and work together to solve the behavioral problems for students. Students would know that the school is putting in effort as group to deal with his/her issue. My school has one big department specializes in dealing with students’ affairs—DSA (department of student affairs).
- Example: When students break rules multiple times in the classroom, it is time to involve the DSA to give them school level warning letters which in accumulation can lead to the student being expelled by the school.
- Home contingency(Marzano)
In fact, involving the parents should be done constantly in multiple ways, it should not be the last resort. Home contingency begins with a meeting among the parents or guardians, the teacher, and the student. The group discusses the student’s problem behaviors, and the student has opportunities to explain or defend the behaviors in question. The purpose of this meeting or meetings is for all parties to agree on the specific negative behaviors that are to stop in class and the specific positive behaviors that are to be exhibited.
- Examples: As a result of an initial meeting among a middle school student, her parents, and the teacher, the group determines that the targeted negative behavior for the student is acting out when she becomes frustrated. The targeted positive behavior is to increase her level of engagement during class.
- Marzano, Robert J. The Art And Science Of Teaching. 1st ed. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2007. Print.